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Data Study

The Most Sleep-Deprived Cities in the US

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Recent years have brought explosive demand for products and resources to improve people’s health and well-being. The wellness market is one of the fastest-growing consumer industries, as more people seek out new products and services to support wellness, from fitness to nutrition to mindfulness and mental health.

Consequences of Sleep Deprivation

But one of the most important components of health and wellness is also one of the most fundamental: sleep. Lower rates of sleep are associated with a number of health problems, including a weakened immune system, reduced memory and cognitive performance, and greater likelihood of injuries or accidents.

The CDC recommends that all adults get more than seven hours of sleep per night to help ensure good health. Only around two in three adults report meeting that threshold.

Critically, people who get less sleep tend to have more difficulty preventing and managing chronic health conditions. People who sleep less than seven hours are significantly more likely than those sleeping more than seven hours to have:

  • Diabetes (11.1% vs 8.6%)
  • Coronary heart disease (4.7% vs 3.4%)
  • Obesity (33.0% vs 26.5%).

And mental health shows the relationship even more strongly: the rate of depression among insufficient sleepers is more than 1.5 times as high as the rate for sufficient sleepers (22.9% vs 14.6%).

Insufficient sleepers face elevated risks of many other physical and mental health conditions

Sleep Deprivation Demographics

And as with other health behaviors and conditions, quality sleep is uneven across different demographic categories. Around one-third of all adults get less than seven hours of sleep per night, but that figure varies according to factors like race and ethnicity as well as income level.

Nearly half of Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (47.0%) are not getting enough sleep. Similarly, more than two in five Black Americans (43.5%) are sleep-deprived. These rates are far higher than the rates for Asian (30.5%), White (30.7%), and Hispanic (32.3%) Americans.

For the lowest-income Americans — those making less than $15,000 per year — 38% are sleeping less than seven hours on average. In contrast, of those on the higher end of the income spectrum making more than $50,000, only 30.8% are sleep-deprived.

Insufficient sleep is highly correlated with race, ethnicity, and income

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These demographic characteristics also help explain the locations where people are getting the least sleep.

Hawaii has the most residents receiving inadequate sleep (44%). This makes sense given it high population of Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders.

Many of the other states with residents sleeping less are found in the Appalachian region — including West Virginia (41.5%), Kentucky (40.7%), and Tennessee (40.7%) — which has some of the lowest incomes of any part of the country.

At the local level, the majority of the most sleep-deprived cities are found in these states and in nearby parts of the South and Rust Belt regions.

Adults in Appalachia and Hawaii get the least amount of sleep

The data used in this analysis is from the CDC’s PLACES: Local Data for Better Health 2021 Release.

To determine the most sleep-deprived locations in the US, researchers at HotDog.com calculated the proportion of adults who get less than the recommended minimum of seven hours of sleep in a typical 24 hour period.

For additional context, researchers also calculated the proportion of adults who report various health conditions associated with insufficient sleep, including diabetes, coronary heart disease, obesity, and depression.

Cities Whose Residents Don’t Get Enough Sleep

Here are the most sleep-deprived cities in the US.

Columbus, OH
Photo Credit: Zack Frank / Shutterstock

25. Columbus, OH

  • Share of adults getting <7 hours per night: 42.2%
  • Share of adults with diabetes: 10.4%
  • Share of adults with heart disease: 5.3%
  • Share of adults with obesity: 36.7%
  • Share of adults with depression: 21.9%

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Murfreesboro, TN
Photo Credit: J. Adam Hamilton / Shutterstock

24. Murfreesboro, TN

  • Share of adults getting <7 hours per night: 42.3%
  • Share of adults with diabetes: 8.9%
  • Share of adults with heart disease: 4.5%
  • Share of adults with obesity: 36.1%
  • Share of adults with depression: 27.8%
Fayetteville, NC
Photo Credit: refrina / Shutterstock

23. Fayetteville, NC

  • Share of adults getting <7 hours per night: 42.3%
  • Share of adults with diabetes: 11.8%
  • Share of adults with heart disease: 5.5%
  • Share of adults with obesity: 34.3%
  • Share of adults with depression: 22.6%
Montgomery, AL
Photo Credit: Sean Pavone / Shutterstock

22. Montgomery, AL

  • Share of adults getting <7 hours per night: 42.6%
  • Share of adults with diabetes: 14.2%
  • Share of adults with heart disease: 6.5%
  • Share of adults with obesity: 37.6%
  • Share of adults with depression: 22.0%
Buffalo, NY
Photo Credit: Sergey Novikov / Shutterstock

21. Buffalo, NY

  • Share of adults getting <7 hours per night: 42.7%
  • Share of adults with diabetes: 13.1%
  • Share of adults with heart disease: 6.6%
  • Share of adults with obesity: 37.2%
  • Share of adults with depression: 21.4%
Beaumont, TX
Photo Credit: Silvio Ligutti / Shutterstock

20. Beaumont, TX

  • Share of adults getting <7 hours per night: 42.8%
  • Share of adults with diabetes: 14.1%
  • Share of adults with heart disease: 6.3%
  • Share of adults with obesity: 41.0%
  • Share of adults with depression: 19.7%
Augusta, GA
Photo Credit: Sean Pavone / Shutterstock

19. Augusta, GA

  • Share of adults getting <7 hours per night: 42.8%
  • Share of adults with diabetes: 14.4%
  • Share of adults with heart disease: 6.7%
  • Share of adults with obesity: 37.8%
  • Share of adults with depression: 19.8%
Macon, GA
Photo Credit: Sean Pavone / Shutterstock

18. Macon, GA

  • Share of adults getting <7 hours per night: 43.1%
  • Share of adults with diabetes: 15.2%
  • Share of adults with heart disease: 7.3%
  • Share of adults with obesity: 38.4%
  • Share of adults with depression: 21.3%
Newport News, VA
Photo Credit: beredesign / Shutterstock

17. Newport News, VA

  • Share of adults getting <7 hours per night: 43.3%
  • Share of adults with diabetes: 11.4%
  • Share of adults with heart disease: 5.3%
  • Share of adults with obesity: 38.3%
  • Share of adults with depression: 19.8%
Toledo, OH
Photo Credit: Michael Shake / Shutterstock

16. Toledo, OH

  • Share of adults getting <7 hours per night: 43.5%
  • Share of adults with diabetes: 14.2%
  • Share of adults with heart disease: 7.7%
  • Share of adults with obesity: 39.5%
  • Share of adults with depression: 24.4%
Jackson, MS
Photo Credit: Sean Pavone / Shutterstock

15. Jackson, MS

  • Share of adults getting <7 hours per night: 43.5%
  • Share of adults with diabetes: 15.4%
  • Share of adults with heart disease: 6.0%
  • Share of adults with obesity: 43.4%
  • Share of adults with depression: 20.1%
Miramar, FL
Photo Credit: Felix Mizioznikov / Shutterstock

14. Miramar, FL

  • Share of adults getting <7 hours per night: 43.7%
  • Share of adults with diabetes: 11.1%
  • Share of adults with heart disease: 4.0%
  • Share of adults with obesity: 32.2%
  • Share of adults with depression: 16.0%
Rochester, NY
Photo Credit: Wirestock Creators / Shutterstock

13. Rochester, NY

  • Share of adults getting <7 hours per night: 43.9%
  • Share of adults with diabetes: 12.8%
  • Share of adults with heart disease: 6.1%
  • Share of adults with obesity: 37.8%
  • Share of adults with depression: 22.1%
Clarksville, TN
Photo Credit: SannaBlue / Shutterstock

12. Clarksville, TN

  • Share of adults getting <7 hours per night: 44.0%
  • Share of adults with diabetes: 10.1%
  • Share of adults with heart disease: 4.6%
  • Share of adults with obesity: 37.2%
  • Share of adults with depression: 25.5%
Birmingham, AL
Photo Credit: Sean Pavone / Shutterstock

11. Birmingham, AL

  • Share of adults getting <7 hours per night: 44.0%
  • Share of adults with diabetes: 17.3%
  • Share of adults with heart disease: 7.2%
  • Share of adults with obesity: 39.6%
  • Share of adults with depression: 21.0%
Baltimore, MD
Photo Credit: Sean Pavone / Shutterstock

10. Baltimore, MD

  • Share of adults getting <7 hours per night: 44.1%
  • Share of adults with diabetes: 12.9%
  • Share of adults with heart disease: 5.7%
  • Share of adults with obesity: 37.2%
  • Share of adults with depression: 20.4%
Columbus, GA
Photo Credit: Sean Pavone / Shutterstock

9. Columbus, GA

  • Share of adults getting <7 hours per night: 44.1%
  • Share of adults with diabetes: 13.7%
  • Share of adults with heart disease: 6.4%
  • Share of adults with obesity: 37.5%
  • Share of adults with depression: 20.4%
Philadelphia, PN
Photo Credit: Gang Liu / Shutterstock

8. Philadelphia, PA

  • Share of adults getting <7 hours per night: 45.1%
  • Share of adults with diabetes: 12.6%
  • Share of adults with heart disease: 6.0%
  • Share of adults with obesity: 32.2%
  • Share of adults with depression: 22.0%
Dayton, OH
Photo Credit: Patricia Elaine Thomas / Shutterstock

7. Dayton, OH

  • Share of adults getting <7 hours per night: 45.7%
  • Share of adults with diabetes: 16.5%
  • Share of adults with heart disease: 8.0%
  • Share of adults with obesity: 42.2%
  • Share of adults with depression: 23.1%
Honolulu, HI
Photo Credit: Izabela23 / Shutterstock

6. Honolulu, HI

  • Share of adults getting <7 hours per night: 46.3%
  • Share of adults with diabetes: 11.1%
  • Share of adults with heart disease: 5.0%
  • Share of adults with obesity: 22.4%
  • Share of adults with depression: 12.7%
Miami Gardens, FL
Photo Credit: Mia2you / Shutterstock

5. Miami Gardens, FL

  • Share of adults getting <7 hours per night: 46.5%
  • Share of adults with diabetes: 16.2%
  • Share of adults with heart disease: 6.2%
  • Share of adults with obesity: 35.5%
  • Share of adults with depression: 17.2%
Flint, MI
Photo Credit: Jacob Boomsma / Shutterstock

4. Flint, MI

  • Share of adults getting <7 hours per night: 47.6%
  • Share of adults with diabetes: 17.9%
  • Share of adults with heart disease: 8.3%
  • Share of adults with obesity: 49.0%
  • Share of adults with depression: 23.8%
Memphis, Tennessee
Photo Credit: Sean Pavone / Shutterstock

3. Memphis, TN

  • Share of adults getting <7 hours per night: 47.9%
  • Share of adults with diabetes: 15.7%
  • Share of adults with heart disease: 6.6%
  • Share of adults with obesity: 40.3%
  • Share of adults with depression: 22.2%
Cleveland, OH
Photo Credit: Sean Pavone / Shutterstock

2. Cleveland, OH

  • Share of adults getting <7 hours per night: 50.2%
  • Share of adults with diabetes: 16.6%
  • Share of adults with heart disease: 8.3%
  • Share of adults with obesity: 43.9%
  • Share of adults with depression: 22.2%
Detroit, MI
Photo Credit: Sean Pavone / Shutterstock

1. Detroit, MI

  • Share of adults getting <7 hours per night: 51.2%
  • Share of adults with diabetes: 18.0%
  • Share of adults with heart disease: 8.2%
  • Share of adults with obesity: 49.0%
  • Share of adults with depression: 19.6%

Methodology and Detailed Findings

The data used in this analysis is from the CDC’s PLACES: Local Data for Better Health 2021 Release.

To determine the most sleep-deprived locations in the US, researchers calculated the proportion of adults who get less than the recommended minimum of seven hours of sleep in a typical 24 hour period.

For additional context, researchers also calculated the proportion of adults who report various health conditions associated with insufficient sleep, including diabetes, coronary heart disease, obesity, and depression. Due to data availability limitations, all rates shown are crude (non age-adjusted) rates.

Only cities with at least 100,000 residents were included in the analysis, and some cities and states with unavailable data from the CDC were excluded.

Featured Image Photo Credit: Iryna Kalamurza / Shutterstock

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By Frank Moraes

Frank Moraes is Content Editor at HotDog.com. He specializes in technology, business, and film/television. You can see his writing on low-budget and weird film at Psychotronic Review — and many other places.

Contact Frank with thoughts, questions, and story ideas at [email protected]

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